Subject Index

Subject Index
by Clifford Morris

Adult literacy / multiple intelligences (MI)

Adult MI 1 Adult MI 2

American Educational Research Association (AERA) Multiple Intelligences (MI) Special Interest Group (SIG)


Building Beautiful Boxes


Career Scenarios

Criteria of MI

Critiques of MI


Database of (New) MI Abstracts


Exploring MI

Exploring MI Theory


General intelligence, or g


History of Psychology

Home Schooling

Human Intelligences Data Base 

Intelligence: This Indiana University web site was last modified on July 14, 2004.  The site highlights biographical profiles of people who have influenced the development of intelligence theory and testing, in-depth articles exploring current controversies related to human intelligence as well as numerous practical resources for teachers.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Binet

Most people continue to believe that the psychological construct termed 'intelligence' is a single score based on how well we do on timed paper-and-pencil tests or what our grades were in public school. Such a belief stems back to the pioneering work of a French psychologist Alfred Binet. Around 1905, he tried to come up with some kind of a measuring tool that would predict the success or failure of children in the primary grades, in Paris, France (To read a translation of Binet's 1905 article, New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals, go to

Binet's efforts became the forerunner of the standard intelligence quotient (IQ) test that most traditional psychologists continue to use today. This test is based, in the main, on the study of a "g" factor, supposedly mostly genetic, unitary and consistent. That is, all of us are born with a single intelligence that cannot be changed but can be easily measurable by mainstream psychologists.

To summarize most briefly for here, Binet had Parisian school children complete tasks such as a) following commands, b) copying patterns, c) naming objects, d) putting things in order or arranging them properly. He created a standard based on his research data. For example, if 70% of 8-year-old children could pass his particular test, then he stated that success on the test represented an 8-year-old level of intelligence. From his work, stemmed the phrase intelligence quotient, or IQ -- the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA), with the numeral 100 being considered the average IQ. Thus, an 8 year old who passed a 10 year-old test would have an IQ of 10 / 8 x 100, or 125. Binet's original work set off a passion for intelligence testing and, in the enthusiasm, a widespread application of tests and scoring measures developed from relatively limited data. Assessment tools, based on Binet's test, were used by the U.S. Army to sort out the vast numbers of best recruits in World War I. However, the test questions had much more to do with general knowledge than with mental tasks such as sequencing or matching.


I do not agree with the normal curve  message stemming from those two (2) immediately above paragraphs. Instead of looking for significant correlations between standardized tests (see "THE NORMAL CURVE" schema immediately above), I feel that we should, instead, be looking at how we develop skills that are relevant within today's dominant cultures. When we learn to play musical instruments, the piano, for example, we are learning several skills. Will the training that we acquire in learning to play a piano enhance our logical-mathematics skills ... or verse versa? All other areas that we may excel at or have natural ability in are very seldom taken into consideration (especially within our schools). We are individually unique. We all have different physical features -- we are not all blue-eyed, brown-haired, five-foot tall beings. We each possess different personalities -- some of us are comedians while others are quiet, reserved and serious. We all have our own set of talents, gifts, interests and abilities. Not everyone excels in mathematics and language. Then why should we compare how smart we are or how successful we will be based mainly on twelve (12) timed sub-tests that measure , in the main, only two aspects of who we are? 

IQ and Race

Intelligences: A Poem

Internet Guide to MI

Inventories on MI


Lesson Plans and MI

Links to MI Sites

Literary Classics and other E-Content

  1. Aesop's Fables @:

  2. Children's Classics @:

  3. Complete works of William Shakespeare @:

  4. Creative Commons @: h

  5. Internet Public Library @:

  6. Short Stories of Chekhov and Wilde @:


Multiple Intelligences: Everyone's Theory

Occupations and Multiple Intelligences

Ontario College of Teachers



Pictures of our minds

PhD pilot study  This published research investigation outlines how verbal protocols were used to compare the self-perceived multiple intelligences (MI) of grade eight (8) students to classroom teacher nominations.  Very simply stated for here, regular classroom teachers nominated students considered dominant in one of Howard Gardnerís many intelligences.  The students were then asked to verbalize aloud while ranking themselves using scenarios depicting each of the intelligences.  Concurrent and retrospective verbal protocols were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim to text, coded and analyzed.  Results indicated a strong agreement between teacher nomination and student identification of Gardnerís intelligences.  More detailed studies should be completed before determining the validity and reliability of profiling such intelligences.

Private Schools

  1. Ottawa's Independent Junior and Senior High School

  2. Private School Affairs Private schools allay the concerns of parents worried about sending their children into todayís dangerous and permissive public school system.  Private schools promise strong discipline and an enriching environment.  But what exactly do private schools offer Ė and can they live up to the hype?  To read more about them, click on the title just above.

  3. Private School Vouchers

  4. Venta Preparatory School


Reading and MI

Reading and writing is fun

Research investigation  Research subjects who have successfully completed Phase I of my longitudinal study into the development of an assessment instrument to profile human intelligences can now commence Phase II by clicking on the immediate above title.  As an aside, since the earliest of times, views as to the nature of the psychological construct human intelligence have been polarized -- from mainstream psychologists who consider cerebral capabilities as a general factor, singular and static -- to developmental psychologists who advocate a pluralistic model of our cognitive capacities.



Some Simple Sayings

  1. Do unto others as if you were the other.
  2. Good better best, never let it rest, until the good is better and the better best.
  3. I am on the road to success when I realize that failure is a mere detour.
  4. If I have a few minutes to spare, I don't spend them with those who haven't.
  5. It is better to sleep on what I intend to do than to stay awake over what I have done.
  6. Music is everyone's fifth intelligence.
  7. Plan ahead ... it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark.
  8. The more I know, the less I know I know.
  9. The older I grow the more I recall how little I knew when I knew it all.
  10. The only way to have a friend is to be one.
  11. The secret of success in conversation is to be able to disagree without being disagreeable.
  12. To know ignorance is part of knowledge.
  13. When I have nothing to say, I say nothing.

S-M-A-R-T-E-R study

Social intelligences

Success is all of the following five (5) things

  1. Doing what we enjoy most

  2. Spending time at something that is important to us

  3. Fitting our natural and nurturing abilities into available marketplace options

  4. Teasing out our more dominant intelligences from our less dominant intelligences

  5. Blending our interests and hobbies into an existing job.


Tapping into MI

Teachers & diversify

Teaching kids the way they learn best

Technology and MI

Theatre in motion

Truth, Beauty and Goodness: Education for all human beings: A Talk with Howard Gardner


Why many parents dislike multiple intelligences

Author Index | Book Reviews | CV | Email | Home Schooling | Human Intelligences Data Base

Journal of Human Intelligences | Subject Index | Success | Writings

Most recently revised on: Thursday, 30 November, 2006